Our specialists in Speech and Language Therapy, practicing in Cape Town, South Africa will assist you in the assessment and treatment of Speech and Language Disorders.

Articulation and phonology therapy
Speech is a system of sounds by which meaning is conveyed.
An articulation error is any sound that is produced incorrectly/not age appropriately in the following forms:

S (substitution): e.g. substituting the /r/ for a /w/

O (omission): e.g. at instead of cat

D (distortion): e.g. interdental production of the /s/ sound (lisping)

A (addition): e.g. terrain instead of train

Speech norms


The shaded bar for each sound represents firstly:

Emerging Sound
(left sound of bar):

Children at this age make the sound correctly 50% of the time in at least one part of the word.

And secondly:

Mastered Sound
(right side of bar)

Children at this age make the sound correctly an average of 90% of the time across all parts of the word. Learning a sound can take long.


Phonological processES

This involves the pattern of sound errors. We are all familiar with the following tat instead of cat. These processes are when sounds that are formed at the back of the mouth (k, g) are substituted with sounds formed in the front of the mouth (t, d).

Other examples:

  • tee instead of tree – Children omit one of the sounds of the word
  • tittiekat instead of kitty cat – The production of the whole word is influenced by the presence of a particular sound in the word
  • hoe instead of home – The final consonant in a word is omitted
  • big instead of pig – A voiceless sound is replaced by a voiced sound

These processes are not expected as a child gets older. If a child continues to demonstrate such process, he or she may have a phonological process disorder.

If your child’s speech is unclear or other people struggle to understand your child when he/she speaks. Do not hesitate, come and see a Speech and Language Therapist. She has been trained to tell whether your child's speech is age appropriate.






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